Some Art Terms and Movements
Gothic (1150 - 1580)

Renaissance (1350 - 1600)

Baroque  (1600 - 1750)

Rococo  (1710 - 1790)

Neoclassical (1740 - 1835)

Romanticism (1750 - 1860)

Pre-Raphaelite (1848 - 1856)
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood or Pre-Raphaelites was a group of English painters,  founded in 1848. They rejected what they considered to be the mechanistic approach to art. They believed that the classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the teaching of art. Hence the name "Pre-Raphaelite".
John Everett Millais; Dante Gabriel Rossetti; William Holman Hunt.

Impressionism (1860 - 1895)
The term initially came from a Claude Monet painting. The Impressionists, working in France, rejected the government sponsored exhibitions and commissions of earlier generations. They believed that artists should paint using natural light  showing the effect of light on landscape and outdoor scenes.
e.g. Claude Monet; Edgar Degas; Piere-Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro; Edouard Manet.

Symbolism (1885 - 1910)
Rejecting realism and Impressionism, these artists wanted to show moods, ideas and often mystical images.
e.g. Gustave Moreau; Edward Burne-Jones.

Post-impressionism (1886 - 1914)
Following  Impressionism but rejecting its limitations. Post-Impressionists continued using vivid colours, thick application of paint, distinctive brush strokes and real-life subject matter, but they were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, to distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary colour.
e.g. Paul Cézanne;  Paul Gauguin; Vincent Willem van Gogh

Pointillism (1885 - 1903)
This is is a style of painting in which small distinct points of colour create the impression of a complete image.
e.g. Georges-Pierre Seurat

Expressionism (1905 - 1939 )
Expressions of reality by distortion, e.g. The Scream by Edvard Munch.
Others - Mark Rothko; Wassily Kandinsky; Egon Schiele.

Art Nouveau (1890 - 1920)
Highly decorative with intricate curves and floral shapes, influenced architecture, sculpture,jewellery
and furniture.
e.g. Alphonse Mucha; Louis Tiffany; Gustav Klimt.

Art Deco (1915 - 1940)
As a contrast to Art Nouveau, Art Deco uses strong symmetrical  images and geometric shapes.
e.g. Georgia O'Keeffe.

Cubism (1905 -1920)
The beginning of abstract art, started by Pablo Picasso, breaking the subject into abstract geometric forms.
e.g. Pablo Picasso; Georges Braques; Marcel Duchamp.

Surrealism (1924 -)
Images from dreams and the subconscious mind.
e.g. Salvador Dali; Joan Miro; Rene Margritte; Marc Chagal.

Futurism (1907 -1944)
Originated in Italy they wished to represent  the technological triumph of people over nature.
e.g. Giacomo Balla; David Davidovich Burliuk.

Abstract Expressionism (1945 -1965)
Abstract expressionism was an American post–World War II art movement, showing all types of non-geometric abstraction.  In the 1940s and '50s, for the first time, American artists became internationally important. The first public exhibitions of work by the ``New York School'' of artists-- who were to become known as Abstract Expressionists-- were held in the mid '40s.
Arshile  Gorky; Jackson Pollock; Willem de Kooning

Pop Art (1955 - 1980)
Began as a reaction against abstract art to reflect everyday life, using images of kitchen items, comic characters and celebrity faces.
e.g. Andy Warhol; David Hockney; Roy Lichtenstein; Jaspar Johns.

( All dates approx.)